Florida Senate - 2013 SB 812 By Senator Gibson 9-01052-13 2013812__ 1 A bill to be entitled 2 An act relating to youth in solitary confinement; 3 creating s. 958.155, F.S.; providing a short title; 4 defining terms; prohibiting the Department of 5 Corrections or a local government body from subjecting 6 a youth to solitary confinement except under certain 7 circumstances; limiting cell confinement of all youth 8 prisoners; providing protection for youth prisoners 9 held in emergency cell confinement; prohibiting a 10 youth prisoner from being subjected to emergency cell 11 confinement for more than 24 hours; requiring the 12 placement in emergency cell confinement to be 13 documented; requiring that a mental health clinician 14 evaluate face-to-face within a specified time a youth 15 prisoner who is subjected to emergency cell 16 confinement; requiring staff to perform visual checks 17 at specified intervals; providing for an 18 individualized suicide crisis intervention plan, if 19 applicable; providing for the protection of youth 20 prisoners in disciplinary cell confinement; 21 prohibiting a youth prisoner from being subjected to 22 disciplinary cell confinement for more than 72 hours; 23 requiring staff to perform visual checks at specified 24 intervals; requiring that youth prisoners in 25 disciplinary cells be allotted services and other 26 benefits that are made available to prisoners in the 27 general prison population; providing reduced isolation 28 for youth prisoners in protective custody; requiring 29 the department and counties to review their policies 30 relating to youth prisoners to evaluate whether the 31 policies are necessary; requiring a report to the 32 Governor and Legislature; amending s. 944.09, F.S.; 33 authorizing the department to adopt rules; amending s. 34 951.23, F.S.; requiring sheriffs to adopt standards 35 relating to youth prisoners; providing an effective 36 date. 37 38 Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida: 39 40 Section 1. Section 958.155, Florida Statutes, is created to 41 read: 42 958.155 Youthful offenders in solitary confinement.— 43 (1) SHORT TITLE.—This act may be cited as the “Youth in 44 Solitary Confinement Reduction Act.” 45 (2) DEFINITIONS.—As used in this section, the term: 46 (a) “Disciplinary cell confinement” means a disciplinary 47 sanction for a major rule violation in which a youth who is 48 found guilty of committing a major rule violation is confined to 49 a cell for a specified period of time. 50 (b) “Emergency cell confinement” means the confinement to a 51 cell of a youth who needs to be temporarily removed from the 52 general population of prisoners because he or she presents an 53 immediate, serious danger to the security or safety of himself 54 or herself or others. 55 (c) “Major rule violation” means an act that: 56 1. Is an act of violence which results in or is likely to 57 result in serious injury or death to another; 58 2. Occurs in connection with an act of nonconsensual sex; 59 3. Consists of two or more discrete acts that cause serious 60 disruption to the security or order of the detention center or 61 facility operations; or 62 4. Is an escape, attempted escape, or conspiracy to escape 63 from within a security perimeter or custody or both. 64 (d) “Mental health clinician” means a psychiatrist, 65 psychologist, social worker, or nurse practitioner. 66 (e) “Prisoner” means a person incarcerated in a county or 67 regional jail or in a department facility who is accused of, 68 convicted of, or sentenced for, violations of criminal law or 69 the terms and conditions of parole, probation, pretrial release, 70 or a diversionary program. 71 (f) “Protective custody” means a status for a youth who 72 requires protection because he or she is in danger of being 73 victimized by other prisoners in the facility, including time 74 spent pending review of the youth’s request for protection. 75 (g) “Solitary confinement” means involuntary confinement in 76 a cell for more than 20 hours a day, in isolation from persons 77 other than a cellmate, guards, facility staff, and attorneys. 78 (h) “Youth” means a person who is younger than 18 years of 79 age, or a person who is sentenced as a “youthful offender” by a 80 court or classified as such by the department pursuant to 81 chapter 958. 82 (3) PROTECTING YOUTH FROM SOLITARY CONFINEMENT.—A youth 83 prisoner who is held under the jurisdiction of the department or 84 a local government body in this state may not be subjected to 85 solitary confinement, except as provided in this section. Cell 86 confinement of all youth prisoners shall be limited to the types 87 and parameters of confinement specified in this section. 88 (4) PROTECTING YOUTH HELD IN EMERGENCY CELL CONFINEMENT.— 89 (a) A youth prisoner may be subjected to emergency cell 90 confinement for a period not to exceed 24 hours. 91 (b) A youth prisoner may not be subjected to emergency cell 92 confinement unless all other less restrictive options have been 93 exhausted. The placement of a youth prisoner in emergency cell 94 confinement shall be documented, including the justification for 95 the placement and all the attempts for other less restrictive 96 options before the placement. 97 (c) A youth prisoner may be subjected to emergency cell 98 confinement for the shortest time that is required to address 99 the safety risk and may not be held in such confinement if a 100 mental health clinician determines that the confinement is 101 detrimental to the youth’s mental or physical health. 102 (d) A youth prisoner who is subjected to emergency cell 103 confinement shall be evaluated face-to-face by a mental health 104 clinician within 1 hour after placement and at least every 4 105 hours thereafter to determine if the youth should remain in cell 106 confinement. Each evaluation shall be documented and must 107 include the reason for continued placement in emergency cell 108 confinement. 109 (e) During the time a youth prisoner is subjected to 110 emergency cell confinement, the facility staff shall conduct 111 visual checks at least 4 times an hour and not longer than 15 112 minutes apart. During the time a youth is awake, the staff shall 113 speak to the youth during the visual checks. After each visual 114 check, the staff shall document the status of the youth. 115 (f) Within 4 hours of placing a youth prisoner who has 116 exhibited suicidal behavior or committed acts of self-harm in 117 emergency cell confinement, an individualized suicide crisis 118 intervention plan must be implemented for the youth, and a 119 mental health clinician shall closely monitor the youth’s 120 condition in order to reduce or eliminate the risk of self-harm. 121 If the youth’s suicide risk is not resolved within 24 hours, the 122 youth shall be moved to a mental health receiving facility. 123 (g) A youth prisoner who is subjected to emergency cell 124 confinement shall be provided: 125 1. At least 1 hour of out-of-cell large muscle exercise 126 daily that includes access to outdoor recreation when the 127 weather permits; and 128 2. Access to the same meals and drinking water, medical 129 treatment, contact with parents and legal guardians, and legal 130 assistance as provided to prisoners in the general population. 131 (5) PROTECTING YOUTH HELD IN DISCIPLINARY CELL 132 CONFINEMENT.— 133 (a) A youth prisoner may be subjected to disciplinary cell 134 confinement by himself or herself for a period not to exceed 72 135 hours. 136 (b) During the time a youth prisoner is subjected to 137 disciplinary cell confinement in a cell by himself or herself, 138 the facility staff shall conduct visual checks at least 4 times 139 an hour and not longer than 15 minutes apart. During the time 140 the youth is awake, the staff shall speak to the youth during 141 the visual checks. After each visual check, the staff shall 142 document the status of the youth. 143 (c) A youth prisoner who is subjected to disciplinary cell 144 confinement shall be provided: 145 1. At least 2 hours of daily out-of-cell large muscle 146 exercise that includes access to outdoor recreation when the 147 weather permits; 148 2. Daily showers; and 149 3. Access to the same standards of meals and drinking 150 water, clothing, medical treatment, educational services, 151 correspondence privileges, contact with parents and legal 152 guardians, and legal assistance as provided to prisoners in the 153 general population. 154 (6) REDUCING ISOLATION FOR YOUTH WHO REQUIRE PROTECTIVE 155 CUSTODY.—If a youth prisoner is subjected to protective custody, 156 the restrictions to which the youth prisoner is subjected due to 157 such custody status must be the least restrictive to maintain 158 the safety of the youth prisoner and the institution. At a 159 minimum, such youth prisoner shall have access to: 160 (a) Educational and programming opportunities consistent 161 with the youth prisoner’s safety and security and any federal 162 and state law requirements; 163 (b) At least 5 hours a day of out-of-cell time, including a 164 minimum of 2 hours of daily out-of-cell large muscle exercise 165 that includes access to outdoor recreation when the weather 166 permits; 167 (c) The same meals and drinking water, clothing, and 168 medical treatment as provided to prisoners in the general 169 population; 170 (d) Personal property, including televisions and radios, 171 and access to books, magazines, and other printed materials; 172 (e) Daily showers; 173 (f) The law library; and 174 (g) The same correspondence privileges and number of visits 175 and phone calls allowed to prisoners in the general population, 176 including, but not limited to, the same level of contact with 177 parents and legal guardians and the same level of legal 178 assistance. 179 (7) IMPLEMENTATION.— 180 (a) The department and the county commission of each county 181 that administers a detention facility or jail shall review their 182 policies relating to youth prisoners in solitary confinement or 183 protective custody to determine if the policies are necessary. 184 The department and the county commission of each county that 185 administers a detention facility or jail shall certify 186 compliance to the provisions of this section in a report that 187 the department and the commission shall submit to the Governor, 188 the President of the Senate, and the Speaker of the House of 189 Representatives by January 1, 2014. The department and the 190 county commission of each county shall adopt such policies and 191 procedures that are necessary to administer this act. 192 (b) This act does not conflict with any law providing 193 greater or additional protections to youth prisoners in this 194 state. 195 Section 2. Paragraph (s) is added to subsection (1) of 196 section 944.09, Florida Statutes, to read: 197 944.09 Rules of the department; offenders, probationers, 198 and parolees.— 199 (1) The department has authority to adopt rules pursuant to 200 ss. 120.536(1) and 120.54 to implement its statutory authority. 201 The rules must include rules relating to: 202 (s) Disciplinary procedures and punishment for youth 203 prisoners in compliance with the Youth in Solitary Confinement 204 Reduction Act. 205 Section 3. Paragraph (a) of subsection (4) of section 206 951.23, Florida Statutes, is amended to read: 207 951.23 County and municipal detention facilities; 208 definitions; administration; standards and requirements.— 209 (4) STANDARDS FOR SHERIFFS AND CHIEF CORRECTIONAL 210 OFFICERS.— 211 (a) There shall be established a five-member working group 212 consisting of three persons appointed by the Florida Sheriffs 213 Association and two persons appointed by the Florida Association 214 of Counties to develop model standards for county and municipal 215 detention facilities. By October 1, 1996, each sheriff and chief 216 correctional officer shall adopt, at a minimum, the model 217 standards with reference to: 218 1.a. The construction, equipping, maintenance, and 219 operation of county and municipal detention facilities. 220 b. The cleanliness and sanitation of county and municipal 221 detention facilities; the number of county and municipal 222 prisoners who may be housed therein per specified unit of floor 223 space; the quality, quantity, and supply of bedding furnished to 224 such prisoners; the quality, quantity, and diversity of food 225 served to them and the manner in which it is served; the 226 furnishing to them of medical attention and health and comfort 227 items; and the disciplinary treatment which may be meted out to 228 them. 229 230 Notwithstanding the provisions of the otherwise applicable 231 building code, a reduced custody housing area may be occupied by 232 inmates or may be used for sleeping purposes as allowed in 233 subsection (7). The sheriff or chief correctional officer shall 234 provide that a reduced custody housing area shall be governed by 235 fire and life safety standards which do not interfere with the 236 normal use of the facility and which affect a reasonable degree 237 of compliance with rules of the State Fire Marshal for 238 correctional facilities. 239 2. The confinement of prisoners by classification and 240 providing, whenever possible, for classifications which separate 241 males from females, juveniles from adults, felons from 242 misdemeanants, and those awaiting trial from those convicted 243 and, in addition, providing for the separation of special risk 244 prisoners, such as the mentally ill, alcohol or narcotic 245 addicts, sex deviates, suicide risks, and any other 246 classification which the local unit may deem necessary for the 247 safety of the prisoners and the operation of the facility 248 pursuant to degree of risk and danger criteria. Nondangerous 249 felons may be housed with misdemeanants. 250 3. The confinement of prisoners by classification and 251 providing for classifications which comply with the Youth 252 Solitary Confinement Reduction Act. 253 Section 4. This act shall take effect July 1, 2013.