2021 Florida Statutes (Including 2021B Session)
985.03 Definitions.—As used in this chapter, the term:
(1) “Abscond” means to hide, conceal, or absent oneself from the jurisdiction of the court or supervision of the department to avoid prosecution or supervision.
(2) “Addictions receiving facility” means a substance abuse service provider as defined in chapter 397.
(3) “Adjudicatory hearing” means a hearing for the court to determine whether or not the facts support the allegations stated in the petition, as is provided for under s. 985.35 in delinquency cases.
(4) “Adult” means any natural person other than a child.
(5) “Arbitration” means a process whereby a neutral third person or panel, called an arbitrator or an arbitration panel, considers the facts and arguments presented by the parties and renders a decision which may be binding or nonbinding.
(6) “Authorized agent” or “designee” of the department means a person or agency assigned or designated by the department to perform duties or exercise powers under this chapter and includes contract providers and their employees.
(7) “Child” or “juvenile” or “youth” means any person under the age of 18 or any person who is alleged to have committed a violation of law occurring prior to the time that person reached the age of 18 years.
(8) “Child in need of services” has the same meaning as provided in s. 984.03.
(9) “Child who has been found to have committed a delinquent act” means a child who, under this chapter, is found by a court to have committed a violation of law or to be in direct or indirect contempt of court, except that this definition does not include an act constituting contempt of court arising out of a dependency proceeding or a proceeding concerning a child or family in need of services.
(10) “Circuit” means any of the 20 judicial circuits as set forth in s. 26.021.
(11) “Comprehensive assessment” or “assessment” means the gathering of information for the evaluation of a juvenile offender’s or a child’s physical, psychological, educational, career and technical education, and social condition and family environment as they relate to the child’s need for rehabilitative and treatment services, including substance abuse treatment services, mental health services, developmental services, literacy services, medical services, family services, and other specialized services, as appropriate.
(12) “Conditional release” means the care, treatment, help, supervision, and provision of transition-to-adulthood services provided to a juvenile released from a residential commitment program which is intended to promote rehabilitation and prevent recidivism. The purpose of conditional release is to protect the public, reduce recidivism, increase responsible productive behavior, and provide for a successful transition of the youth from the department to his or her family. Conditional release includes, but is not limited to, nonresidential community-based programs.
(13) “Court” means the circuit court assigned to exercise jurisdiction under this chapter, unless otherwise expressly stated.
(14) “Day treatment” means a nonresidential, community-based program designed to provide therapeutic intervention to youth who are served by the department, placed on probation or conditional release, or committed to the minimum-risk nonresidential level. A day treatment program may provide educational and career and technical education services and shall provide case management services; individual, group, and family counseling; training designed to address delinquency risk factors; and monitoring of a youth’s compliance with, and facilitation of a youth’s completion of, sanctions if ordered by the court. Program types may include, but are not limited to, career programs, marine programs, juvenile justice alternative schools, training and rehabilitation programs, and gender-specific programs.
(15)(a) “Delinquency program” means any intake, probation, or similar program; regional detention center or facility; or community-based program, whether owned and operated by or contracted by the department, or institution owned and operated by or contracted by the department, which provides intake, supervision, or custody and care of children who are alleged to be or who have been found to be delinquent under this chapter.
(b) “Delinquency program staff” means supervisory and direct care staff of a delinquency program as well as support staff who have direct contact with children in a delinquency program.
(16) “Department” means the Department of Juvenile Justice.
(17) “Designated facility” or “designated treatment facility” means any facility designated by the department to provide treatment to juvenile offenders.
(18) “Detention care” means the temporary care of a child in secure or supervised release detention, pending a court adjudication or disposition or execution of a court order. There are two types of detention care, as follows:
(a) “Secure detention” means temporary custody of the child while the child is under the physical restriction of a secure detention center or facility pending adjudication, disposition, or placement.
(b) “Supervised release detention” means temporary, nonsecure custody of the child while the child is released to the custody of the parent, guardian, or custodian in a physically nonrestrictive environment under the supervision of the department staff pending adjudication or disposition, through programs that include, but are not limited to, electronic monitoring, day reporting centers, and nonsecure shelters. Supervised release detention may include other requirements imposed by the court.
(19) “Detention center or facility” means a facility used pending court adjudication or disposition or execution of court order for the temporary care of a child alleged or found to have committed a violation of law. A detention center or facility may provide secure custody. A facility used for the commitment of adjudicated delinquents shall not be considered a detention center or facility.
(20) “Detention hearing” means a hearing for the court to determine if a child should be placed in temporary custody, as provided for under part V in delinquency cases.
(21) “Disposition hearing” means a hearing in which the court determines the most appropriate dispositional services in the least restrictive available setting provided for under part VII, in delinquency cases.
(22) “Family” means a collective of persons, consisting of a child and a parent, guardian, adult custodian, or adult relative, in which:
(a) The persons reside in the same house or living unit; or
(b) The parent, guardian, adult custodian, or adult relative has a legal responsibility by blood, marriage, or court order to support or care for the child.
(23) “Family in need of services” has the same meaning as provided in s. 984.03.
(24) “Intake” means the initial acceptance and screening by the department or juvenile assessment center personnel of a complaint or a law enforcement report or probable cause affidavit of delinquency to determine the recommendation to be taken in the best interests of the child, the family, and the community. The emphasis of intake is on diversion and the least restrictive available services. Consequently, intake includes such alternatives as:
(a) The disposition of the complaint, report, or probable cause affidavit without court or public agency action or judicial handling when appropriate.
(b) The referral of the child to another public or private agency when appropriate.
(c) The recommendation by the department of judicial handling when appropriate and warranted.
(25) “Judge” means the circuit judge exercising jurisdiction pursuant to this chapter.
(26) “Juvenile justice continuum” includes, but is not limited to, prevention programs and services designed for the purpose of preventing or reducing delinquent acts, including criminal activity by criminal gangs, and juvenile arrests, as well as programs and services targeted at children who have committed delinquent acts, and children who have previously been committed to residential treatment programs for delinquents. The term includes children-in-need-of-services and families-in-need-of-services programs under chapter 984; conditional release; substance abuse and mental health programs; educational and career programs; recreational programs; community services programs; community service work programs; mother-infant programs; and alternative dispute resolution programs serving children at risk of delinquency and their families, whether offered or delivered by state or local governmental entities, public or private for-profit or not-for-profit organizations, or religious or charitable organizations.
(27) “Juvenile probation officer” means the authorized agent of the department who performs the intake, case management, or supervision functions.
(28) “Legal custody or guardian” means a legal status created by court order or letter of guardianship which vests in a custodian of the person or guardian, whether an agency or an individual, the right to have physical custody of the child and the right and duty to protect, train, and discipline the child and to provide him or her with food, shelter, education, and ordinary medical, dental, psychiatric, and psychological care.
(29) “Licensed child-caring agency” means a person, society, association, or agency licensed by the Department of Children and Families to care for, receive, and board children.
(30) “Licensed health care professional” means a physician licensed under chapter 458, an osteopathic physician licensed under chapter 459, a nurse licensed under part I of chapter 464, a physician assistant licensed under chapter 458 or chapter 459, or a dentist licensed under chapter 466.
(31) “Likely to injure oneself” means that, as evidenced by violent or other actively self-destructive behavior, it is more likely than not that within a 24-hour period the child will attempt to commit suicide or inflict serious bodily harm on himself or herself.
(32) “Likely to injure others” means that it is more likely than not that within a 24-hour period the child will inflict serious and unjustified bodily harm on another person.
(33) “Mediation” means a process whereby a neutral third person called a mediator acts to encourage and facilitate the resolution of a dispute between two or more parties. It is an informal and nonadversarial process with the objective of helping the disputing parties reach a mutually acceptable and voluntary agreement. In mediation, decisionmaking authority rests with the parties. The role of the mediator includes, but is not limited to, assisting the parties in identifying issues, fostering joint problem solving, and exploring settlement alternatives.
(34) “Mother-infant program” means a residential program designed to serve the needs of juvenile mothers or expectant juvenile mothers who are committed as delinquents, which is operated or contracted by the department. A mother-infant program facility must be licensed as a child care facility under s. 402.308 and must provide the services and support necessary to enable each juvenile mother committed to the facility to provide for the needs of her infants who, upon agreement of the mother, may accompany her in the program.
(35) “Necessary medical treatment” means care which is necessary within a reasonable degree of medical certainty to prevent the deterioration of a child’s condition or to alleviate immediate pain of a child.
(36) “Next of kin” means an adult relative of a child who is the child’s brother, sister, grandparent, aunt, uncle, or first cousin.
(37) “Ordinary medical care” means medical procedures that are administered or performed on a routine basis and include, but are not limited to, inoculations, physical examinations, remedial treatment for minor illnesses and injuries, preventive services, medication management, chronic disease detection and treatment, and other medical procedures that are administered or performed on a routine basis and do not involve hospitalization, surgery, the use of general anesthesia, or the provision of psychotropic medications.
(38) “Parent” means a woman who gives birth to a child and a man whose consent to the adoption of the child would be required under s. 63.062(1). If a child has been legally adopted, the term “parent” means the adoptive mother or father of the child. The term does not include an individual whose parental relationship to the child has been legally terminated, or an alleged or prospective parent, unless the parental status falls within the terms of either s. 39.503(1) or s. 63.062(1).
(39) “Preliminary screening” means the gathering of preliminary information to be used in determining a child’s need for further evaluation or assessment or for referral for other substance abuse services through means such as psychosocial interviews; urine and breathalyzer screenings; and reviews of available educational, delinquency, and dependency records of the child.
(40) “Prevention” means programs, strategies, initiatives, and networks designed to keep children from making initial or further contact with the juvenile justice system.
(41) “Probation” means the legal status of probation created by law and court order in cases involving a child who has been found to have committed a delinquent act. Probation is an individualized program in which the freedom of the child is limited and the child is restricted to noninstitutional quarters or restricted to the child’s home in lieu of commitment to the custody of the department. Youth on probation may be assessed and classified for placement in day-treatment probation programs designed for youth who represent a minimum risk to themselves and public safety and do not require placement and services in a residential setting.
(42) “Relative” means a grandparent, great-grandparent, sibling, first cousin, aunt, uncle, great-aunt, great-uncle, niece, or nephew, whether related by the whole or half blood, by affinity, or by adoption. The term does not include a stepparent.
(43) “Respite” means a placement that is available for the care, custody, and placement of a youth charged with domestic violence as an alternative to secure detention or for placement of a youth when a shelter bed for a child in need of services or a family in need of services is unavailable.
(44) “Restrictiveness level” means the level of programming and security provided by programs that service the supervision, custody, care, and treatment needs of committed children. Sections 985.601(10) and 985.721 apply to children placed in programs at any residential commitment level. The restrictiveness levels of commitment are as follows:
(a) Minimum-risk nonresidential.—Programs or program models at this commitment level work with youth who remain in the community and participate at least 5 days per week in a day treatment program. Youth assessed and classified for programs at this commitment level represent a minimum risk to themselves and public safety and do not require placement and services in residential settings. Youth in this level have full access to, and reside in, the community. Youth who have been found to have committed delinquent acts that involve firearms, that are sexual offenses, or that would be life felonies or first degree felonies if committed by an adult may not be committed to a program at this level.
(b) Nonsecure residential.—Programs or program models at this commitment level are residential but may allow youth to have supervised access to the community. Facilities at this commitment level are either environmentally secure, staff secure, or are hardware-secure with walls, fencing, or locking doors. Residential facilities at this commitment level shall have no more than 90 beds each, including campus-style programs, unless those campus-style programs include more than one treatment program using different treatment protocols, and have facilities that coexist separately in distinct locations on the same property. Facilities at this commitment level shall provide 24-hour awake supervision, custody, care, and treatment of residents. Youth assessed and classified for placement in programs at this commitment level represent a low or moderate risk to public safety and require close supervision. The staff at a facility at this commitment level may seclude a child who is a physical threat to himself or herself or others. Mechanical restraint may also be used when necessary.
(c) High-risk residential.—Programs or program models at this commitment level are residential and do not allow youth to have access to the community, except that temporary release providing community access for up to 72 continuous hours may be approved by a court for a youth who has made successful progress in his or her program in order for the youth to attend a family emergency or, during the final 60 days of his or her placement, to visit his or her home, enroll in school or a career and technical education program, complete a job interview, or participate in a community service project. High-risk residential facilities are hardware-secure with perimeter fencing and locking doors. Residential facilities at this commitment level shall have no more than 90 beds each, including campus-style programs, unless those campus-style programs include more than one treatment program using different treatment protocols, and have facilities that coexist separately in distinct locations on the same property. Facilities at this commitment level shall provide 24-hour awake supervision, custody, care, and treatment of residents. Youth assessed and classified for this level of placement require close supervision in a structured residential setting. Placement in programs at this level is prompted by a concern for public safety that outweighs placement in programs at lower commitment levels. The staff at a facility at this commitment level may seclude a child who is a physical threat to himself or herself or others. Mechanical restraint may also be used when necessary. The facility may provide for single cell occupancy, except that youth may be housed together during prerelease transition.
(d) Maximum-risk residential.—Programs or program models at this commitment level include juvenile correctional facilities and juvenile prisons. The programs at this commitment level are long-term residential and do not allow youth to have access to the community. Facilities at this commitment level are maximum-custody, hardware-secure with perimeter security fencing and locking doors. Residential facilities at this commitment level shall have no more than 90 beds each, including campus-style programs, unless those campus-style programs include more than one treatment program using different treatment protocols, and have facilities that coexist separately in distinct locations on the same property. Facilities at this commitment level shall provide 24-hour awake supervision, custody, care, and treatment of residents. The staff at a facility at this commitment level may seclude a child who is a physical threat to himself or herself or others. Mechanical restraint may also be used when necessary. Facilities at this commitment level shall provide for single cell occupancy, except that youth may be housed together during prerelease transition. Youth assessed and classified for this level of placement require close supervision in a maximum security residential setting. Placement in a program at this level is prompted by a demonstrated need to protect the public.
(45) “Secure detention center or facility” means a physically restricting facility for the temporary care of children pending adjudication, disposition, or placement.
(46) “Shelter” means a place for the temporary care of a child who is alleged to be or who has been found to be delinquent.
(47) “Substance abuse” means using, without medical reason, any psychoactive or mood-altering drug, including alcohol, in such a manner as to induce impairment resulting in dysfunctional social behavior.
(48) “Taken into custody” means the status of a child immediately when temporary physical control over the child is attained by a person authorized by law, pending the child’s release, detention, placement, or other disposition as authorized by law.
(49) “Temporary legal custody” means the relationship that a juvenile court creates between a child and an adult relative of the child, adult nonrelative approved by the court, or other person until a more permanent arrangement is ordered. Temporary legal custody confers upon the custodian the right to have temporary physical custody of the child and the right and duty to protect, train, and discipline the child and to provide the child with food, shelter, and education, and ordinary medical, dental, psychiatric, and psychological care, unless these rights and duties are otherwise enlarged or limited by the court order establishing the temporary legal custody relationship.
(50) “Temporary release” means the terms and conditions under which a child is temporarily released from a residential commitment facility or allowed home visits. If the temporary release is from a nonsecure residential facility, a high-risk residential facility, or a maximum-risk residential facility, the terms and conditions of the temporary release must be approved by the child, the court, and the facility.
(51) “Transition-to-adulthood services” means services that are provided for youth in the custody of the department or under the supervision of the department and that have the objective of instilling the knowledge, skills, and aptitudes essential to a socially integrated, self-supporting adult life. The services may include, but are not limited to:
(a) Assessment of the youth’s ability and readiness for adult life.
(b) A plan for the youth to acquire the knowledge, information, and counseling necessary to make a successful transition to adulthood.
(c) Services that have proven effective toward achieving the transition to adulthood.
(52) “Trauma-informed care” means services that are provided to children with a history of trauma, recognizing the symptoms of trauma and acknowledging the role that trauma has played in the child’s life. Trauma may include, but is not limited to, community and school violence, physical or sexual abuse, neglect, medical difficulties, and domestic violence.
(53) “Violation of law” or “delinquent act” means a violation of any law of this state, the United States, or any other state which is a misdemeanor or a felony or a violation of a county or municipal ordinance which would be punishable by incarceration if the violation were committed by an adult.
(54) “Waiver hearing” means a hearing provided for under s. 985.556(4).
History.—s. 4, ch. 97-234; s. 3, ch. 97-238; s. 1, ch. 97-276; s. 13, ch. 98-49; s. 7, ch. 98-207; s. 78, ch. 98-280; s. 169, ch. 98-403; s. 58, ch. 99-7; s. 14, ch. 99-201; s. 9, ch. 99-284; s. 18, ch. 2000-135; s. 150, ch. 2000-318; s. 35, ch. 2001-3; s. 14, ch. 2001-125; s. 119, ch. 2002-1; s. 1050, ch. 2002-387; s. 67, ch. 2004-357; s. 1, ch. 2005-263; ss. 4, 56, 57, 59, ch. 2006-120; s. 2, ch. 2008-65; s. 30, ch. 2008-238; s. 1, ch. 2010-123; ss. 2, 3, ch. 2011-70; s. 1, ch. 2011-236; s. 2, ch. 2012-56; s. 117, ch. 2013-15; s. 343, ch. 2014-19; s. 3, ch. 2014-162; s. 2, ch. 2018-86.