After each decennial Census the Legislature redraws the districts from which Florida voters elect their state representatives, state senators, and members of the U.S. House of Representatives.
Redistricting is the redrawing of congressional and state legislative districts to adjust for uneven growth rates in different parts of the state. Districts determine which voters participate in which elections.
Reapportionment is the redistribution of seats in the United States House of Representatives among the 50 states, based on the decennial census. Each state gets at least one seat. Effective with elections in 2022 Florida gets 28 representatives in the U.S. House of Representatives, an increase of one from last decade. Two U.S. Senators represent the entire state.
The Reapportionment Process (PDF) flowchart shows the process for approving new state house and senate districts (See Article III, Section 16 of the Florida Constitution). It also indicates the paths followed dating back to 1972. The process is different for congressional districts, which are set by act of the Legislature and approved by the Governor (there is no mandatory review by the Florida Supreme Court).
The Florida Constitution directs the Legislature to redraw district boundaries at its Regular Session in the second year following each decennial census, which began on January 11, 2022. Before and during the 2022 Regular Session, the House and Senate held interim committee meetings, where the respective committees met and conducted the redistricting and reapportionment process.
Though the COVID-19 pandemic delayed the U.S. Census Bureau’s delivery of population and demographic data, Florida completed the redistricting process within its required timeframe, inclusive of committee stops, public input opportunities, and time for discussion and debate in each of the legislative chambers.
Please visit www.FloridaRedistricting.gov for more information regarding the redistricting process.
Between 2010 and 2020, the resident population in Florida increased from 18,801,310 to 21,538,187. The average number of people in each congressional district increased from 696,345 to 769,221. The average number of people in each of 120 state house districts increased from 156,678 to 179,485. The average number of people in each of 40 state senate districts increased from 470,033 to 538,455.
The Voting Rights Act requires the creation of a district that performs for racial and language minorities where (1) a minority population is geographically compact and sufficiently numerous to be a majority in a single district; (2) the minority population is politically cohesive; (3) the majority votes sufficiently as a bloc to enable it usually to defeat the minority-preferred candidate; and (4) under all of the circumstances, the minority population has less opportunity than others to participate in the political process and elect representatives of its choice.
The Voting Rights Act also prohibits purposeful discrimination and protects against retrogression—or backsliding—in the ability of racial and language minorities to elect representatives of their choice. Prior to the 2013 U.S. Supreme Court case Shelby County v. Holder, which negated the coverage formula in the Act, these requirements applied only to certain counties in Florida: Collier, Hardee, Hendry, Hillsborough, and Monroe. Districts containing parts of these covered jurisdictions had to be submitted to and precleared by a federal court or the United States Department of Justice before the redistricting plan could be enforced. The Shelby County decision means the preclearance process established by the Voting Rights Act is no longer in effect, but it does not affect the validity of the diminishment standard in the Florida Constitution.
Article III, Section 16 of the State Constitution requires the Legislature to divide the state into 30 to 40 contiguous senatorial districts and 80 to 120 contiguous house districts. A district is contiguous if all of its territory is in actual contact, uninterrupted by the territory of another district. Contact at a corner or right angle is insufficient, but territory may cross bodies of water. The Constitution allows state legislative districts to overlap, either partially or entirely.
In November 2010, the voters added amendments to the State Constitution in Article III, Sections 20 and 21. These Amendments prohibit line-drawing that intentionally favors or disfavors a political party or an incumbent. The Amendments also afford protection to racial and language minorities. Districts may not be drawn (1) with the intent or result of denying or abridging the equal opportunity of racial or language minorities to participate in the political process; or (2) to diminish their ability to elect representatives of their choice. Finally, unless it would conflict with the standards described above, the Amendments require that district populations be as nearly equal as practicable, and that districts be compact and, where feasible, follow existing political and geographical boundaries.
- April 26, 2021: Census Bureau releases statewide population totals for apportioning the seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
- August 12, 2021: Census Bureau publishes tabular population, demographic, and housing data for all 50 states
- September 16, 2021: Census Bureau formally delivers formatted PL 94-171 Redistricting Data to the states
- September 2021 - December 2021: Interim committee meetings
- January 11, 2022: 2022 Regular Session convenes
- January 13, 2022: Senate Committee on Reapportionment favorably recommends CS/SJR 100 relating to state senate districts and CS/SB 102 relating to congressional districts
- January 20, 2022: Senate passes CS/SJR 100 containing Senate Plan S027S8058 and CS/SB 102 containing Congressional Plan S035C8060
- February 1, 2022: Governor DeSantis requests an advisory opinion from the Florida Supreme Court regarding congressional redistricting
- February 2, 2022: House passes CS/SJR 100 as amended to include House Plan H000H8013
- February 3, 2022: Senate passes CS/SJR 100 containing House Plan H000H8013 and Senate Plan S027S8058
- February 9, 2022: Attorney General petitions the Florida Supreme Court for a declaratory judgment to determine the validity of CS/SJR 100, pursuant to Article III, Section 16(c) of the Florida Constitution
- February 10, 2022: Florida Supreme Court denies the Governor’s request for an advisory opinion regarding congressional redistricting
- March 3, 2022:
- Florida Supreme Court rules the state house and state senate maps are valid pursuant to their constitutional review
- House amends CS/SB 102, replacing Senate Congressional Plan S035C8060 with Plans H000C8019 and H000C8015
- Plan H000C8019, the “primary” plan, serves as the map for elections beginning in 2022 and thereafter unless Congressional District 5 is invalidated by a court, in which case, Plan H000C8015, the “secondary” plan, would take immediate effect
- March 4, 2022: House and Senate pass CS/SB 102 containing Plans H000C8019 and H000C8015
- March 11, 2022: 60th Day of 2022 Regular Session
- March 29, 2022: Governor vetoes CS/SB 102
- April 19 - 22, 2022: Special Session C
- April 20, 2022: Senate passes SB 2-C containing Congressional Plan P000C0109
- April 21, 2022: House passes SB 2-C containing Congressional Plan P000C0109
- April 22, 2022: Governor signs SB 2-C containing Congressional Plan P000C0109
- June 13 - 17, 2022: Qualifying for state and federal offices
- July 9, 2022: Primary Election overseas ballot mailing
- August 23, 2022: Primary Election
- September 24, 2022: General Election overseas ballot mailing
- November 8, 2022: General Election